内容摘要：The Asiatic Mode of Production in World History Perspective:From a Universal to a Particularistic View of History.
1.The Asiatic Mode of Production in World History Perspective: From a Universal to a Particularistic View of History
Guangzhou Developmental Academy, Guangzhou University
Abstract:Discussions on Marx’s “Asiatic mode of production” are essentially about the relationship between the universal and the particularistic view of history. Marx adhered to the world history position, but in the course of formulating his theory of the Asiatic mode of production he moved from universal history to a particularistic view of history; whereas the shift from the “Russian path” and “Russian way” provided by the Russian revolution to Stalin’s doctrine of the “five forms” of social development represented a return from particularistic to universal history. In developing a Chinese view of history, three elements cannot be overlooked: the Chinese pattern of historical development and China’s present development experience; Marx’s theory of social forms and his thoughts on Oriental society in his later years; and the “Russian path” and “systemic transformation” launched by the October Revolution.
Keywords: Asiatic mode of production, world history, universal history, particularistic history, theory of Oriental society
2.A Legal Structure for Limiting the Agency Cost of Stock Rights Transfer*
International School of Financial Law, East China University of Political Science and Law
Abstract:The unilateral disposition of stock rights’ voting rights detracts from the welfare of the other shareholders. Contractual arrangements restricting or prohibiting the transfer of stock rights under the capital majority rule may infringe upon shareholders’ right of withdrawal, further weakening stock market constraints on senior management and indirectly raising the agency cost of management abuse of power for private ends. In creating a legal structure for stock rights transfer, we need to find an appropriate balance between freedom of contract, capital majority rule and reduction of agency costs. Judges should determine that the transfer of voting rights is invalid in order to ensure that voting rights match residual claim rights and maintain the constraints on senior management represented by shareholder voting rights. The general prohibition of stock rights transfer in the articles of association blocks shareholders’ right of withdrawal; this is not conducive to restraining potential abuses of power on the part of senior management and should be made invalid. Judges must differentiate between long- and short-term contracts and the initial and revised clauses of the articles of association in order to distinguish between the efficacy of different arrangements limiting transfer of stock rights as laid down in the articles of association.
Keywords: transfer of stock rights, agency cost, long-term and short-term contracts, legal structure
3.Technology Spillovers in the Multinational Outsourcing System and Technological Innovation in Recipient Countries*
School of Economics, Zhejiang Gongshang University
Abstract:Unlike technology spillovers from FDI or international trade, which operate through a single channel, technology spillovers from multinational outsourcing operate through the combined effect of multiple channels including import spillovers, export spillovers and pure knowledge spillovers. On the basis of the knowledge production function approach, this paper constructs an international R&D spillover regression equation to test the effect of different technology spillover channels on technological innovation in China’s manufacturing industry. Research shows that import spillovers are the only channel to have a significant effect, and this varies from industry to industry. Its significance is low in high- tech industry and medium-high in mid-tech and low-tech industries. Empirical findings indicate that China’s local enterprises are unlikely to achieve technological innovation via “learning from importing” or “learning from communication.”
Keywords: multinational outsourcing, technology spillovers, technological innovation
4.The Micro-Formation Mechanism of Trade Conflicts between Large Developing Countries: India’s Anti-dumping Action against China*
Wang Xiaosong a and Xie Shenxiang b
a School of Economics, Renmin University of China
b School of International Trade and Economics, Shandong University of Finance and Economics
Abstract:Employing Grossman and Helpman’s “protection for sale” model, this article uses data on anti-dumping actions from 1999 to 2009 to perform a quantitative analysis of factors influencing India’s determinations of anti-dumping duties against China, and reveals the micro-formation mechanism of economic conflicts between China and India. We find that the political power of India’s anti-dumping plaintiffs markedly increases the tariff level of its final determinations and that the relationship between the import penetration ratio and duty rates depends upon whether the plaintiffs are politically organized. Further, there is a significant positive correlation between India’s anti-dumping duty rates and its unfavorable trade balance with China. This indicates that in determining anti-dumping duties, Indian authorities are clearly influenced by the political clout of their domestic interest groups. They are also motivated by the desire to keep down China and gain the upper hand in the face-off between the “dragon and the elephant.”
Keywords: “dragon-vs-elephant competition,” anti-dumping action against China,“protection for sale” model, political power
5.Evaluation of Fertility Levels and Adjustment of Fertility Policy: Based on the Current Situation of the Chinese Mainland’s Provincial Fertility Levels*
Yin Wenyao a Yao Yinmei b and Li Fen c
a, b and c Population and Development Institute of Zhejiang University
Abstract:During the 11th Five-year Plan (2006-2010), the total fertility rate of the mainland of China was 1.481 and was stable with a slight decline, exhibiting a spatial pattern of moderately low fertility in the central and western regions, very low fertility in the east and extremely low fertility in the northeast. Except for a rebound in a few provinces and regions with extremely low fertility rates, the ratio of actual fertility rates to policy fertility rates is still falling. The reduced fertility rate is mainly driven by development, notably the proportion of the total population represented by the exuberantly fertile women of child-bearing age and their greater urbanization, growing level of non-agricultural employment and outflow from rural areas, as well as the assimilative effect of urban production, lifestyles and cultural concepts upon the agricultural population. Development has catalyzed an irreversible trend of declining fertility; existing fertility policy has proven insufficient to keep fertility rates stable at reasonably low levels. Policy-based rebounds may emerge in urban areas and the east and northeast, where family planning policy has been better implemented; on the other hand, a non-policy-based rebound may have been released. In the central and western rural areas, multiple births occur on average among only 4.12 percent of the younger generation of women. As fertility policy is adjusted and improved, fertility rebounds in transitional fertility policy adjustment can be effectively regulated through a gradual strategy which will not provoke a sharp rebound. The time is ripe for China to conduct a nationally unified adjustment of the existing fertility policy.
Keywords: policy fertility rate, actual fertility rate, provincial fertility rate, regional fertility rate, one generation of one-child policy
6.Internal Drivers and the Specialization Status of Under-developed Countries: Evidence from China’s High-tech Industry*
Yang Gaoju a and Huang Xianhai b
a and b College of Economics, Zhejiang University
Abstract:This study incorporates value-added ratio (VAR) and productivity into the analytical framework of intra-product specialization (IPS) as a globally comparable index for international specialization status (ISS), to analyze the effect of domestic technological innovation, labor force investment, capital investment and foreign direct investment (FDI) spillovers on the ISS of developing countries. It also tests the effects empirically against the data from Chinese high-tech industries and enterprises. The results show that domestic technological innovation and the improved coordination of material capital and human capital are key internal drivers in the improvement of the ISS of Chinese high-tech industries, whereas FDI spillovers play a relatively limited role therein. Therefore, the key to China’s industry upgrading is to tap and nurture the internal motive forces rather than to rely on FDI spillovers.
Keywords: internal drivers, intra-product specialization, international specialization status, high-tech industries
Special Issue: National Identity in the Course of Globalization
Editorial Advisor: Li Fang
Chinese Editors: Wang Haifeng, Liu Qian, Li Fang and Li Xiaoxiao
Social Sciences in China Press
7.The Marxist Theory of the State and National Identity
The Academy of Marxism, CASS
Abstract:Nation-state identity has become a focus of theoretical discussion in academia home and abroad in recent years. Under the new historical conditions, the study of national identity should take the Marxist theory of the state as its theoretical basis and stick to the Marxist view of class and class analysis so as to properly understand, guide and enhance national identity. The Marxist theory of the state has analyzed in a scientific way the origin, nature, development, succession and decay of the state, and the innovative and transitional nature of the proletarian state. We should not stop at the level of “national identity in general,” but should instead use the Marxist view of class to look at and analyze specific people’s identification with specific states. As far as the developed capitalist states are concerned, the bourgeoisie and the working class differ dramatically in their views, attitudes, emotions and beliefs toward their state. When it comes to China that is still at the primary stage of socialism, national identity needs to be studied in depth and guided in a correct way, especially under the condition of reform and opening-up. The main subjects of national identity should get optimized at all levels.Meanwhile, measures should be taken to enhance conscious awareness of and cultivate right attitudes toward national identity.
Keywords: Marxist theory of the state, national identity, class analysis
8.National Identity in the Era of Globalization: Crisis and Reconstruction*
Wang Zhuojun a and He Hualing b
a and b Soochow University
Abstract:The era of globalization is posing a variety of challenges to national identity. In order to meet these challenges, it is important to offer theoretical scientific interpretations of them. A scrutiny of national identity as a concept reveals that national identity is actually a “four in one” combination of institutional identity, interest identity, cultural identity and non-national community identity, with formative mechanisms characterized the unity of the primordial state and the constructive, expressive forms characterized by the unity of consciousness and action, content characterized by the unity of politics and culture, and maintenance mechanisms characterized by the unity of emotion and self-interest. In the global age, national identity crisis usually arises in political, economic and cultural levels. The root cause for national identity crisis lies in the ineffectiveness of nation states’ self-governance. In order to promote the construction of national identity in the global age, we need to: (1)promote reform of the political system, explore democratic models of governance, and create the institutional preconditions for national identity; (2) promote economic development, ensure fairness and justice, and guarantee interests in national identity; (3) develop national culture, strengthen value integration and enrich the cultural significance of national identity; and (4) recognize different levels of community development and promote community integration in national identity.
Keywords: national identity, national identity crisis, construction of national identity
9.Political Identity: A Perspective from Cultural Identity
Zhan Xiaomei a and Wang Shimin b
a and b Sun Yat-sen University
Abstract:Identity is the “sameness” and belonging of identification. In a real sense, cultural identity is often related to ethno-cultural identity, while political identity and national identity are more often inseparable. Cultural identity lays particular stress on the group destiny of a people or ethnic group from which its members cannot withdraw. Political identity, on the other hand, highlights the subjective values and intentions chosen, judged and assessed by the members of society. Since modern times, politics, as the surface of the social structure, has demonstrated increasingly serious conflict and perplexity, and the decline of the political identity has gradually developed into a common social phenomenon. Considering the high complementarity and the mutual stimulation between cultural identity and political identity, we should take cultural identity as the pivot for our entry into the actual practice of community politics, with a view to promoting institutional innovations, making interest adjustments, and intensifying the community members’ sense of belonging. These are exceptionally meaningful for strengthening the political identity of a community.
Keywords: cultural identity, political identity, nation and state
10.National Identity Crisis in Developing Countries in the Global Age and Its Causes
Zhou Guanghui a and Liu Xiangdong b
a and b College of Public Administration, Jilin University
Abstract:After the 1990s, with the end of the Cold War, great changes have occurred in the world scenario, with ethnic clashes and national conflicts becoming all the more salient, making national identity a hot topic in reality and the academia. To address the issue of national identity in the age of globalization, a deep-going theoretical discussion of the logic behind it is necessary, a discussion that covers the nature of both ethno-cultural identity and national identity, the superiority of national identity to ethno-cultural identity and the logic behind national identity crisis. In terms of the need for social identity, globalization, while changing the power structure of the world, weakens the autonomy of developing countries, especially that of those which are still in the process of modernization and are confronted with risks inherent in social transformation and where a resultant structural imbalance undermines the state’s integrity and control, making national identity less appealing to ethnic groups. As a result, regional ethnic identity comes to the fore, leading to national identity crises in developing countries.
Keywords: developing countries, national identity, national identity crisis
11.China’s National Identity in Transition: Domestic and International Perspectives (1982-2012)
Party School of the Central Committee of CPC
Abstract:In the era of globalization, China’s national identity is in close interaction with ethno- cultural and cultural identity, and is facing great challenges and is under pressure to reshape itself. An in-depth analysis of the Chinese national identity in its institutional, economic, cultural, political and strategic dimensions from both domestic and international perspectives can help us grasp the transition that has taken place in China’s national identity since1978. In order to strengthen China’s national identity by building domestic consensus and increasing international recognition, China needs to further foster its civic consciousness, increase its soft power, enhance the ties between its national, regional and global identities and actively assume the role of a bridge between the developing and the developed countries.
Keywords: China, national identity, globalization, strategic studies